Thursday, August 18, 2011

The Process of Genetic Engineering

The actual process of genetically modifying an organism is complicated, involving several steps. Also there are several different techniques used to take DNA from one organism and insert it into another. Often many attempts must be made before success is achieved. Even the most simple of living organism are very complex and the higher-ordered organisms such as agricultural plants and animals are tremendously complex. A gene map may contain as many as a hundred thousand genes. By far the most difficult task involved with gene splicing is that of locating the gene responsible for certain trait. Remember that genes are arranged on a chromosome in a particular sequence. Locating the proper sequence that controls a particular trait is quite literally like crying to find a needle in a haystack.
To find a particular gene responsible for a particular characteristic a scientist must locate what are called markers. Markers are generally found by comparing DNA patterns on fragments of DNA. Samples of DNA from an organism having the desired characteristic. For example, if a scientist wishes to locate the gene responsible for giving a corn plant resistance to a virus, he or she will compare a fragment of DNA from a plant having the resistance. Differences in the samples of DNA fragments are examined and noted. These differences can be used as markers to locate the desired gene. The comparison of these patterns is known as restriction analysis.
A slightly different form of restriction analysis is also used. This technique is called Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP). In this process, a scientist will cut fragment of DNA from tissue to be compared using an enzyme that cuts DNA at a specific site. This enzyme are called restriction enzymes. The sample fragment are then sorted by a process called electrophoresis, a method of sorting DNA fragments according to size by subjecting the fragments to a direct electric current that draws the DNA through a gel.

Friday, August 5, 2011


Cactus or cacti for plural, is usually found in hot and dry climate such as deserts. However, with modern planting techniques, cactus can be planted in cold or moderate climates.
If you visit Cactus Valley in Cameron Highlands, you will be surprised to come across many varieties of cacti grown there. You will also be attracted to the large collection of unique cacti is 40 to 50 years. Some species of cacti can continue growing to more than 60 years.
In cactus valley, cacti are grown using many methods but they need great care. They are grown in plastic and clay pot. The pots used vary in shapes and sizes. Usually they are grown in small pots.
Growing cacti as a hobby will be a good pastime. Nowadays, it has become a popular hobby among the Malaysians for more and more people are picking up the hobby. As such, it is becoming a rewarding and lucrative activity. Some people adore cacti as decorative objects while others enjoy watching the plants grow.
For those who are interested, you can look for information in magazines and encyclopedias, or use your computer to surf the Internet.

Tuesday, July 26, 2011

Info: Shark's Teeth

Sharks have similar-shaped razor sharp teeth in their mouths. A sharks may have as many as five sets of teeth, set in rows one behind the other. As the teeth in front, along the outside of the jaw, are lost or wear out, the teeth behind move forward and replace the lost ones. This process of teeth renewal continues throughout the sharks's life. As the shark grows bigger. in size, the new teeth tend to be bigger than the ones they replace. Not all shark's teeth look the same and a species can be identified by the shape of its teeth. The teeth of the great white shark are triangular with a serrated edge like a saw. The sand shark's teeth are more dagger-like.

Sunday, July 24, 2011


Do you like kiwifruit?It's a small fruit with furry brown skin and bright green flesh with little black seeds. It's delicious - sweet, with a sourish tang. Did you know that it is also known as the Chinese gooseberry or Yang-toa? That because it is a native of china, and not New Zealand as many of you may think. The seeds were brought to New Zealand hundreds of years ago. The fruit became very popular with New Zealand who later planted the fruit in their backyards. Today, kiwifruit is grown commercially in the United States, Italy, South Africa and Chile.

Tuesday, July 19, 2011

The Jewel of India

Do you pelan to visit the city of Agra in new Delhi? If you do, then you must visit the Taj Mahal. It is the famous monuments in the world. It is one of the seven man-made wonders. It is known as The Jewel of India
It was built by Emperor Shah Jehan for his beautiful late wife Queen Mumtaz Mahal. This monument is a magnificent tomb where his beloved wife is buried. It is made of white marble and red sand stones. In front of it are lovely pools surrounded by fragrant gardens. This place reminds visitors of a great and happy marriage between two people.
Emperor Shah Jehan started to build the Taj Mahal after his wife died. It look twenty thousand men to build his great monument. They worked every day for eleven years to complete the work.
After Taj Mahal was completed, Emperor Shah Jehan wanted to build another tomb for himself. He wanted it to be made of black marble. But his prince, did not allow the Emperor to build it. So he become sad and when he died, he was buried besides his most beloved wife, in Taj Mahal.

Sunday, July 17, 2011

The Definition of Family

Family institution is a basic unit in society. There are various definitions have been given in explaining the term ‘family’. Even though, family is smallest unit in a society, this institution is the most important medium in shaping an individual is character and life it is regarded as the first and the right place to educate a person.

A family is a primary social group, a small community in society, typically consisting of a man and a woman, or any two individuals who wish to share their lives together in a long-term committed relationship with one another, raising offspring and usually reside in the same home.

Family also can be defined as the main building block of a community. Family structure and upbringing determine the social character and personality of any given society. Family is an important place where people learn about love, caring, compassion, ethics, honesty, fairness, common sense, reason, peaceful conflict resolution respect to others, which are the vital fundamental skills and important family values necessary in one’s life in order live an honourable and prospers life.

The family has also been viewed as a form of social group, a group held together by a common purpose. Although the family is indeed a social group, it is a social group that is very distinct when compared to other social groups. This is because family is a medium that can develop an individual characteristic and behavior.

Besides, family is also defined as a unit of people connected by genealogical link, most basically and ideally consisting of a father and mother with their children or in a means which morally and legally replicates these natural genealogical such as through adoption. Although there is various definition of family, all of these definitions argue that the basics family is defined as parents and a child or children.